In vitro aerial environments and their effects on growth and development of plants

T. Kozai, C. Kubota

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

7 Scopus citations


In this chapter, general characteristics of in vitro aerial environment and fundamental features of major environmental factors in photoautotrophic and conventional (photomixotrophic or heterotrophic) micropropagation are summarized and compared with the general characteristics of the greenhouse environment for plant propagation and transplant production. Effects of the number of air exchanges of the vessel on CO2 concentration, C2H 4 concentration and relative humidity in the vessel are also discussed. It is pointed out that the in vitro environment is considerably different from the greenhouse environment. Basic physical relationships governing the in vitro environment are introduced to facilitate understanding of the mechanism of in vitro environment and to indicate opportunities to improve the in vitro environment for photoautotrophic micropropagation. Basic ideas came from our observation that, in many cases, germinated seeds with cotyledons and stem cuttings with a leaf grow and develop faster in the controlled environment greenhouse than in the culture vessel in conventional micropropagation. Effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of plantlets in vitro are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotoautotrophic (sugar-free medium) Micropropagation as a New Micropropagation and Transplant Production System
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9781402031250
StatePublished - 2005


  • Aerial environment
  • Air movement
  • CO concentration
  • Ethylene
  • Forced ventilation
  • Natural ventilation
  • Relative humidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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