In situ, dual-mode monitoring of organ-on-a-chip with smartphone-based fluorescence microscope

Soohee Cho, Argel Islas-Robles, Ariana M. Nicolini, Terrence J. Monks, Jeong Yeol Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


The use of organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms enables improved simulation of the human kidney's response to nephrotoxic drugs. The standard method of analyzing nephrotoxicity from existing OOC has majorly consisted of invasively collecting samples (cells, lysates, media, etc.) from an OOC. Such disruptive analyses potentiate contamination, disrupt the replicated in vivo environment, and require expertize to execute. Moreover, traditional analyses, including immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot, and microplate immunoassay are essentially not in situ and require substantial time, resources, and costs. In the present work, the incorporation of fluorescence nanoparticle immunocapture/immunoagglutination assay into an OOC enabled dual-mode monitoring of drug-induced nephrotoxicity in situ. A smartphone-based fluorescence microscope was fabricated as a handheld in situ monitoring device attached to an OOC. Both the presence of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) on the apical brush-border membrane of 786-O proximal tubule cells within the OOC surface, and the release of GGT to the outflow of the OOC were evaluated with the fluorescence scatter detection of captured and immunoagglutinated anti-GGT conjugated nanoparticles. This dual-mode assay method provides a novel groundbreaking tool to enable the internal and external in situ monitoring of the OOC, which may be integrated into any existing OOCs to facilitate their subsequent analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)697-705
Number of pages9
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
StatePublished - Dec 15 2016


  • 786-O cells
  • Kidney-on-a-chip
  • Particle immunoagglutination
  • Smartphone microscope
  • γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'In situ, dual-mode monitoring of organ-on-a-chip with smartphone-based fluorescence microscope'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this