Improvement of electro-optic effect and novel waveguide structure in hybrid polymer/sol-gel modulators

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. L. Loychik, D. L. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


A thermally stable crosslinkable electro-optic (EO) polymer is successfully contact-poled in a hybrid EO polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulator. The highest EO coefficient is demonstrated when the EO polymer is poled with a low resistivity sol-gel cladding layer. We achieve the highest in-device EO polymer r33 coefficient of 170pm/V at 1.55μm, which has not been possible with previously reported polymer claddings. A sol-gel waveguide/cladding plays the main role in our hybrid approach not only for poling efficiency, but also for low coupling loss, and stable coupling and waveguiding. The coupled light from the optical fiber propagates through the sol-gel input waveguide and adiabatically vertically transits between the sol-gel core and the EO polymer core. A phase modulator and a Mach-Zehnder modulator with a 2.4cm-long electrode and an inter-electrode distance of 15μm demonstrated a half wave voltages (Vπ) of 2.5V and 1.0V at 1.55μm, respectively. We also examine a push-pull poled Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulator.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOrganic Photonic Materials and Devices IX
StatePublished - 2007
EventOrganic Photonic Materials and Devices IX - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 21 2007Jan 24 2007

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherOrganic Photonic Materials and Devices IX
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA


  • Electro-optic modulator
  • Electro-optic polymer
  • Sol-gel waveguide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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