Improvement in sampling and modulation of multiplexing with temporal shuttering of adaptable apertures in a brain-dedicated multi-pinhole SPECT system

Navid Zeraatkar, Benjamin Auer, Kesava S. Kalluri, Micaehla May, Neil C. Momsen, R. Garrett Richards, Lars R Furenlid, Phillip H. Kuo, Michael A. King

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We are developing a multi-detector pinhole-based stationary brain-dedicated SPECT system: AdaptiSPECT-C. In this work, we introduced a new design prototype with multiple adaptable pinhole apertures for each detector to modulate the multiplexing by employing temporal shuttering of apertures. Temporal shuttering of apertures over the scan time provides the AdaptiSPECT-C with the capability of multiple-frame acquisition. We investigated, through analytic simulation, the impact of projection multiplexing on image quality using several digital phantoms and a customized anthropomorphic phantom emulating brain perfusion clinical distribution. The 105 pinholes in the collimator of the system were categorized into central, axial, and lateral apertures. We generated, through simulation, collimators of different multiplexing levels. Several data acquisition schemes were also created by changing the imaging time share of the acquisition frames. Sensitivity increased by 35% compared to the single-pinhole-per-detector base configuration of the AdaptiSPECT-C when using the central, axial, and lateral apertures with equal acquisition time shares within a triple-frame scheme with a high multiplexing scenario. Axial and angular sampling of the base configuration was enhanced by adding the axial and lateral apertures. We showed that the temporal shuttering of apertures can be exploited, trading the sensitivity, to modulate the multiplexing and to acquire a set of non-multiplexed non-truncated projections. Our results suggested that reconstruction benefited from utilizing both non-multiplexed projections and projections with modulated multiplexing resulting in a noticeably reduction in the multiplexing-induced image artefacts. Contrast recovery factor improved by 20% (9%) compared to the base configuration for a Defrise (hot-rod) phantom study when the central and axial (lateral) apertures with equal time shares were combined. The results revealed that, as an overall trend at each simulated multiplexing level, lowest normalized root-mean-square errors for the brain gray-matter regions were achieved with the combined usage of the central apertures and axial/lateral apertures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number065004
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 21 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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