Implicit self-esteem is associated with higher levels of trait gratitude in women but not men

Anna Alkozei, Ryan Smith, William D.S. Killgore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Higher levels of trait gratitude have been associated with measures of greater self-reported self-esteem. However, such self-report measures may be influenced by self-report biases. In this study we investigated for the first time whether implicit measures of self-esteem would be associated with greater trait gratitude in a sample of 88 undergraduate students (41 female). We observed that, in women (but not men), higher levels of trait gratitude were associated with higher implicit self-esteem (r = .26, p = .05), even when accounting for depressive symptoms. This finding may be of particular importance, as implicit measures of self-esteem have been more strongly associated with psychological health than explicit measures. Future research should further investigate whether the experience of gratitude affects self-esteem differently in men and women, as this knowledge may be important in informing the design of future gratitude interventions aimed at improving psychological health in men and women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)587-592
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Positive Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 3 2019


  • Gender
  • confidence
  • depression
  • self-report

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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