Implicit and Explicit Memory for Verbal Information Presented During Sleep

James M. Wood, Richard R. Bootzin, John F. Kihlstrom, Daniel L. Schacter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


This study examined implicit memory for words presented during sleep. Ten experimental subjects were presented with word pairs including a homophone and a close associate (e.g., tortoise-hare) and with category-instance pairs (e.g., bird-cardinal) during REM or Stage 2 sleep and tested immediately afterward. Twelve control subjects underwent the same procedure while awake. Unlike the controls, subjects in the sleeping condition showed no learning effects on the implicit memory tasks. Recall and recognition were observed in a few cases, but only when presentation was immediately followed by arousal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)236-239
Number of pages4
JournalPsychological Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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