Impacts of Neighborhood Characteristics and Surgical Treatment Disparities on Overall Mortality in Stage I Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

Alejandro Cruz, Faith Dickerson, Kathryn R. Pulling, Kyle Garcia, Francine C. Gachupin, Chiu Hsieh Hsu, Juan Chipollini, Benjamin R. Lee, Ken Batai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States have high renal cell carcinoma (RCC) mortality rates. This study assessed surgical treatment disparities across racial/ethnic groups and impacts of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics on surgical treatments and overall mortality. Stage I RCC patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2016 from National Cancer Database were included (n = 238,141). We assessed differences in associations between race/ethnicity and treatment patterns using logistic regression and between race/ethnicity and overall mortality using Cox regression with and without neighborhood characteristics in the regression models. When compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), American Indians/Alaska Natives and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) were more likely not to receive surgical care and all racial/ethnic minority groups had significantly increased odds of undergoing radical rather than partial nephrectomy, even after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics. Including surgical treatment and neighborhood factors in the models slightly attenuated the association, but NHBs had a significantly increased risk of overall mortality. NHBs who underwent radical nephrectomy had an increased risk of mortality (HR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.08–1.23), but not for NHBs who underwent partial nephrectomy (HR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.84–1.02). Neighborhood factors were associated with surgical treatment patterns and overall mortality in both NHBs and NHWs. Neighborhood socioeconomic factors may only partly explain RCC disparities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2050
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Cancer health disparities
  • Geospatial
  • Kidney cancer
  • Neighborhood socioeconomic status
  • Surgical disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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