Water, soil, air, and sunlight are integrated components of food production. However, water is unique in that humans have been able to manipulate the supply of water, particularly for agrarian applications. A variety of technological innovations in plant breeding, biotech traits, and agronomic improvements have resulted in improved water use efficiency or engineering breakthroughs that result in increased sustainable irrigation techniques. Common to these innovations is investment in science to discover the solutions to the challenge of feeding the estimated 9.5 billion people expected to be living by the year 2050. Water sustainability will be an important factor that has to be addressed, not just in the USA, but globally. As water availability becomes an even more limiting factor, water legislation, regulation, and policy will play an ever-more important role. Managing the water requirements for food production, urban, recreational, and energy and industrial uses will require policy decisions at various levels of government.