Impact of droplet evaporation rate on resulting in vitro performance parameters of pressurized metered dose inhalers

Poonam Sheth, Matthew R. Grimes, Stephen W. Stein, Paul B. Myrdal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. The overall efficiency of pMDI drug delivery may be defined by in vitro parameters such as the amount of drug that deposits on the model throat and the proportion of the emitted dose that has particles that are sufficiently small to deposit in the lung (i.e., fine particle fraction, FPF). The study presented examines product performance of ten solution pMDI formulations containing a variety of cosolvents with diverse chemical characteristics by cascade impaction with three inlets (USP induction port, Alberta Idealized Throat, and a large volume chamber). Through the data generated in support of this study, it was demonstrated that throat deposition, cascade impactor deposition, FPF, and mass median aerodynamic diameter of solution pMDIs depend on the concentration and vapor pressure of the cosolvent, and the selection of model throat. Theoretical droplet lifetimes were calculated for each formulation using a discrete two-stage evaporation process model and it was determined that the droplet lifetime is highly correlated to throat deposition and FPF indicating that evaporation kinetics significantly influences pMDI drug delivery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)360-371
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Aug 7 2017


  • Alberta Idealized Throat
  • Droplet lifetime
  • Evaporation rate
  • Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs)
  • Solution formulation
  • USP inlet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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