Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on Lung Immunology and Inflammation

Homer L. Twigg, Kenneth S. Knox

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes profound changes in the lung compartment characterized by macrophage and lymphocyte activation, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and accumulation of CD8 T cells in the alveolar space, leading to lymphocytic alveolitis. Because many of the changes seen in the lung can be attributed to the direct effect of HIV on immune cells, therapy to reduce the HIV burden should have significant beneficial effects. Indeed, antiretroviral therapy rapidly reduces the viral burden in the lung, number of CD8 T cells in the alveolar space, and amount of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-164
Number of pages10
JournalClinics in Chest Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2013


  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
  • HIV
  • Pulmonary immune reconstitution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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