Immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus strain ZG1999HDS applied oculonasally or by means of nebulization to day-old chicks

Željko Cvetić, Gordana Nedeljković, Mladen Jergović, Krešo Bendelja, Hrvoje Mazija, Željko Gottstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the classic viral infections of poultry which resists all the efforts of eradication. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain ZG1999HDS was isolated during the outbreak in 1,999 at a broiler farm in Croatia. Previous trials in chickens confirmed it to be a lentogenic pathotype and immunogenic by stimulating humoral and cell mediated immunity. Further characterization by deduced amino acid sequence at the cleavage site of fusion protein confirmed its lentogenic nature, and in vitro tests its oncolytic capacity. Owing to its immunogenicity, strain ZG1999HDS is considered for vaccine development. In this study, 1-day-old chicks were vaccinated using strain ZG1999HDS oculonasally or by nebulization. Strain ZG1999HDS induced humoral immune response in both immunized groups The cell-mediated immune response occurred earlier in the group immunized by nebulization, as shown by a higher frequency rate of T and B lymphocytes, and significantly higher expression of IFN-α in respiratory organs and IFN-γ expression in the spleen. Viral genomic RNA was not detected in investigated organs. Thus, NDV strain ZG1999HDS is immunogenic when administered by means of nebulization or oculonasally without any adverse effects and is therefore suitable for further research and vaccine development. Further research is needed regarding its tropism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101001
JournalPoultry science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • cell-mediated immunity
  • flow cytometry
  • interferon- γ
  • interferon-α
  • Newcastle disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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