IL-1β and TNF-α in prostatic secretions are indicators in the evaluation of men with chronic prostatitis

Robert B. Nadler, Alisa E. Koch, Elizabeth A. Calhoun, Phillip L. Campbell, Denise L. Pruden, Charles L. Bennett, Paul R. Yarnold, Anthony J. Schaeffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

192 Scopus citations


Purpose: Chronic Prostatitis, or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome [CPPS], is a common disorder characterized by pelvic pain and varying degrees of inflammation in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS). In search of markers to more clearly define CPPS, we compared proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α) levels in EPS from men with CPPS, to healthy men and men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: 78 men: controls (n = 16), BPH (n = 14), CPPS IIIA [≥10 white blood cells per high power field (WBC/hpf) in EPS] (n = 18), CPPS IIIB [<10 WBC/hpf in EPS] (n = 20), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (AIP) (n = 10) were evaluated for EPS WBC, and IL-1β and TNF-α by ELISA. Results: IL-1β and TNF-α, levels in EPS were usually detectable in men with CPPS IIIA (89% and 45%, respectively) or AIP (90%; 100%), but less often in controls (31%; 17%), BPH (57%; 15%), and CPPS IIIB (35%; 15%) respectively. IL-1β and TNF- α, levels were higher in CPPS IIIA versus CPPS IIIB, and in AIP versus controls or BPH (p's < 0.001). Cut-points for IL-1β and TNF-α, discriminated AIP from controls (predictive values = 94% and 83%, respectively) and CPPS IIIA from CPPS IIIB (predictive values 84% and 100%). Overall, there was a correlation between IL-1β and TNF-α (p < 0.003), but no correlation between WBC and IL-1β (p < 0.1) or TNF-α (p < 0.50). Conclusions: Cytokines are frequently present and elevated in the EPS from men with CPPS IIIA and AIP and provide a novel means for identification, characterization and potential management of men with CPPS that differs from traditional methods based on WBC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-218
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2000


  • Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Prostatitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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