Hyperkalemic or Low Potassium Cardioplegia Protects against Reduction of Energy Metabolism by Oxidative Stress

Hongting Diao, Haiwei Gu, Qin M. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Open-heart surgery is often an unavoidable option for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and prevention of cardiomyopathy. Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires manipulating cardiac contractile function via the perfusion of a cardioplegic solution. Procedure-associated ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, a major source of oxidative stress, affects postoperative cardiac performance and long-term outcomes. Using large-scale liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics, we addressed whether cardioplegic solutions affect the baseline cellular metabolism and prevent metabolic reprogramming by oxidative stress. AC16 cardiomyocytes in culture were treated with commonly used cardioplegic solutions, High K+ (HK), Low K+ (LK), Del Nido (DN), histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK), or Celsior (CS). The overall metabolic profile shown by the principal component analysis (PCA) and heatmap revealed that HK or LK had a minimal impact on the baseline 78 metabolites, whereas HTK or CS significantly repressed the levels of multiple amino acids and sugars. H2O2-induced sublethal mild oxidative stress causes decreases in NAD, nicotinamide, or acetylcarnitine, but increases in glucose derivatives, including glucose 6-P, glucose 1-P, fructose, mannose, and mannose 6-P. Additional increases include metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, D-ribose-5-P, L-arabitol, adonitol, and xylitol. Pretreatment with HK or LK cardioplegic solution prevented most metabolic changes and increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) elicited by H2O2. Our data indicate that HK and LK cardioplegic solutions preserve baseline metabolism and protect against metabolic reprogramming by oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number452
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • cardioplegic solution
  • cardiopulmonary bypass
  • energy metabolism
  • potassium
  • reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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