Human metapneumovirus Induces Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton for Direct Cell-to-Cell Spread

Farah El Najjar, Nicolás Cifuentes-Muñoz, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Ursula J. Buchholz, Carole L. Moncman, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

Paramyxovirus spread generally involves assembly of individual viral particles which then infect target cells. We show that infection of human bronchial airway cells with human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a recently identified paramyxovirus which causes significant respiratory disease, results in formation of intercellular extensions and extensive networks of branched cell-associated filaments. Formation of these structures is dependent on actin, but not microtubule, polymerization. Interestingly, using a co-culture assay we show that conditions which block regular infection by HMPV particles, including addition of neutralizing antibodies or removal of cell surface heparan sulfate, did not prevent viral spread from infected to new target cells. In contrast, inhibition of actin polymerization or alterations to Rho GTPase signaling pathways significantly decreased cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, viral proteins and viral RNA were detected in intercellular extensions, suggesting direct transfer of viral genetic material to new target cells. While roles for paramyxovirus matrix and fusion proteins in membrane deformation have been previously demonstrated, we show that the HMPV phosphoprotein extensively co-localized with actin and induced formation of cellular extensions when transiently expressed, supporting a new model in which a paramyxovirus phosphoprotein is a key player in assembly and spread. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for HMPV direct cell-to-cell spread and provide insights into dissemination of respiratory viruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1005922
JournalPLoS pathogens
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Virology

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