Household and behavioral determinants of indoor PM2.5 in a rural solid fuel burning Native American community

Steven J. Hadeed, Mary Kay O'Rourke, Robert A. Canales, Lorencita Joshweseoma, Gregory Sehongva, Morris Paukgana, Emmanuel Gonzalez-Figueroa, Modhi Alshammari, Jefferey L. Burgess, Robin B. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 were measured for 24 h during heating and non-heating seasons in a rural solid fuel burning Native American community. Household building characteristics were collected during the initial home sampling visit using technician walkthrough questionnaires, and behavioral factors were collected through questionnaires by interviewers. To identify seasonal behavioral factors and household characteristics associated with indoor PM2.5, data were analyzed separately by heating and non-heating seasons using multivariable regression. Concentrations of PM2.5 were significantly higher during the heating season (indoor: 36.2 μg/m3; outdoor: 22.1 μg/m3) compared with the non-heating season (indoor: 14.6 μg/m3; outdoor: 9.3 μg/m3). Heating season indoor PM2.5 was strongly associated with heating fuel type, housing type, indoor pests, use of a climate control unit, number of interior doors, and indoor relative humidity. During the non-heating season, different behavioral and household characteristics were associated with indoor PM2.5 concentrations (indoor smoking and/or burning incense, opening doors and windows, area of surrounding environment, building size and height, and outdoor PM2.5). Homes heated with coal and/or wood, or a combination of coal and/or wood with electricity and/or natural gas had elevated indoor PM2.5 concentrations that exceeded both the EPA ambient standard (35 μg/m3) and the WHO guideline (25 μg/m3).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2008-2019
Number of pages12
JournalIndoor Air
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • household air pollution
  • household environmental risk factors
  • indoor PM
  • rural health
  • solid fuel use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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