Horizontal directivity of low- and high-frequency energy in speech and singing

Brian B. Monson, Eric J. Hunter, Brad H. Story

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Speech and singing directivity in the horizontal plane was examined using simultaneous multi-channel full-bandwidth recordings to investigate directivity of high-frequency energy, in particular. This method allowed not only for accurate analysis of running speech using the long-term average spectrum, but also for examination of directivity of separate transient phonemes. Several vocal production factors that could affect directivity were examined. Directivity differences were not found between modes of production (speech vs singing) and only slight differences were found between genders and production levels (soft vs normal vs loud), more pronounced in the higher frequencies. Large directivity differences were found between specific voiceless fricatives, with /s,l/ more directional than /f,θ/ in the 4, 8, 16 kHz octave bands.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-441
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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