Hopfield model associative memory with nonzero-diagonal terms in memory matrix

Gene R. Gindi, Arthur F. Gmitro, K. Parthasarathy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


The discrete-valued neural network proposed by Hopfield requires zero-diagonal terms in the memory matrix so that the net evolves toward a local minimum of an energy function. For a version of this model with bipolar nodes and positive terms along the diagonal, the net evolves so that only updates that lower the energy by a sufficient amount are accepted. For a net programmed as an outer-product associative content-addressable memory, the version with nonzero-diagonal elements performs nearly identically to one with zero-diagonal terms, and the dropping of the zero-diagonal requirement is advantageous for optical implementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-134
Number of pages6
JournalApplied optics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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