HNO Protects the Myocardium against Reperfusion Injury, Inhibiting the mPTP Opening via PKCε Activation

Daniele Mancardi, Pasquale Pagliaro, Lisa A. Ridnour, Carlo G. Tocchetti, Katrina Miranda, Magdalena Juhaszova, Steven J. Sollott, David A. Wink, Nazareno Paolocci

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Donors of nitroxyl (HNO), the one electron-reduction product of nitric oxide (NO. ), posi-tively modulate cardiac contractility/relaxation while limiting ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. The mechanisms underpinning HNO anti-ischemic effects remain poorly understood. Using isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to 30 min global ischemia/1 or 2 h reperfusion, here we tested whether, in analogy to NO., HNO protection requires PKCε translocation to mitochondria and KATP channels activation. To this end, we compared the benefits afforded by ischemic preconditioning (IPC; 3 cycles of I/R) with those eventually granted by the NO. donor, diethylamine/NO, DEA/NO, and two chemically unrelated HNO donors: Angeli’s salt (AS, a prototypic donor) and isopropyla-mine/NO (IPA/NO, a new HNO releaser). All donors were given for 19 min before I/R injury. In control I/R hearts (1 h reperfusion), infarct size (IS) measured via tetrazolium salt staining was 66 ± 5.5% of the area at risk. Both AS and IPA/NO were as effective as IPC in reducing IS [30.7 ± 2.2 (AS), 31 ± 2.9 (IPA/NO), and 31 ± 0.8 (IPC), respectively)], whereas DEA/NO was significantly less so (36.2 ± 2.6%, p < 0.001 vs. AS, IPA/NO, or IPC). IPA/NO protection was still present after 120 min of reperfusion, and the co-infusion with the PKCε inhibitor (PKCV1-2500 nM) prevented it (IS = 30 ± 0.5 vs. 61 ± 1.8% with IPA/NO alone, p < 0.01). Irrespective of the donor, HNO anti-ischemic effects were insensitive to the KATP channel inhibitor, 5-OH decanoate (5HD, 100 μM), that, in contrast, abrogated DEA/NO protection. Finally, both HNO donors markedly enhanced the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) ROS threshold over control levels (≅35–40%), an action again insensitive to 5HD. Our study shows that HNO donors inhibit mPTP opening, thus limiting myo-cyte loss at reperfusion, a beneficial effect that requires PKCε translocation to the mitochondria but not mitochondrial K+ channels activation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number382
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • K channels
  • Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP)
  • Myocardial reperfusion injury
  • Nitric oxide (NO )
  • Nitroxyl (HNO)
  • PKCε

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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