History of scorpion antivenom: One Arizonan's view

Leslie Boyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This paper was originally presented as the Elsevier Lecture in July, 2012 at the International Society on Toxinology/Venom Week combined meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii. In it, the author addresses the ancient history of venom and immunity, from the Silurian Era to the 1890s; the development of the first antivenoms; the impact of shifting political and economic pressures; the special case of Arizona; the relative stability of the 1960s through 1990s; the transition to regulatory compliance that took place at the time of the author's own research; and concluding thoughts regarding the instability of apparent success.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-20
Number of pages7
StatePublished - Jul 2013


  • Antivenom
  • History
  • Scorpion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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