The acute and subacute toxicity of aflatoxin B1 to the marine shrimp Penaeus stylirostris and P. vannamei (Order: Decapoda, Class: Crustacea) was investigated. Experimental shrimp were exposed to a range of concentrations of the toxin directly by intramascular injection (from 2 to 160 μg aflatoxin B1/g body weight), or by multiple per os dosing with the feed (from 53 to 300 μg aflatoxin B1/g feed) for up to 25 days. The histopathogenesis of aflatoxicosis in the aflatoxin-exposed animals was followed and found to be time and dose dependent in the hepatopancreas, mandibular organ, and in the hematopoietic organs. Less significant and/or inconsistent lesions were also observed in other organs and tissues, but a time-dose dependency was not noted. The principal lesions of aflatoxicosis in penaeid shrimp occur in the hepatopancreas and the mandibular organ. In the former organ, subacute and acute aflatoxicosis is expressed as necrosis of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium that proceeds from the proximal (older) portion of the tubules, in the center of the organ, to the peripheral (younger) tubule tips. A marked intertubular hemocytic inflammation followed by encapsulation and fibrosis of affected tubules follows in subacute aflatoxicosis, but is not as developed as in acute aflatoxicosis. The mandibular organ in aflatoxicosis displays a necrosis of the peripheral epithelial cells of the cords within the gland that progresses proximally to the central vein. Only a slight hemocytic inflammation accompanies the degenerative changes in this latter organ.
- penaeid shrimp
- shrimp culture
- shrimp disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics