High-Resolution, Wide-Field, Forward-Viewing Spectrally Encoded Endoscope

Adel Zeidan, Dukho Do, Dongkyun Kang, Mitsuhiro Ikuta, Jiheun Ryu, Guillermo J. Tearney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background and Objective: Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) is an optical imaging technology that uses spatial wavelength multiplexing to conduct endoscopy in miniature, small diameter probes. Contrary to the previous side-viewing SEE devices, forward-viewing SEE probes are advantageous as they provide a look ahead that facilitates navigation and surveillance. The objective of this work was to develop a miniature forward-viewing SEE probe with a wide field of view and a high spatial resolution. Materials and Methods: We designed and developed a forward-viewing SEE device with an overall total diameter of 1.27 mm, which consists of a monolithic illumination probe with a length of 3.87 mm and a diameter of 500 µm, 8 multimode detection fibers that were polished at a 17° angle, a rotational scanning mechanism, and a sheath. The SEE device was evaluated using a USAF resolution target and was used for preclinical imaging of a swine joint ex vivo. Results: This design resulted in a high resolution probe (best spatial resolution of 20.3 µm), a wide total angular field of view of 100°, and an effective number of imaging elements of ~344,000 pixels. The SEE probe performance was compared to a commercial color chip-on-the-tip endoscope; while monochrome, results showed better spatial resolution and a wider field of view for the SEE device. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the potential of this forward-viewing SEE probe for visualization and navigation in medical imaging applications. Lasers Surg. Med.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)808-814
Number of pages7
JournalLasers in Surgery and Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019


  • forward-viewing
  • miniature endoscopy
  • spectrally encoded endoscopy
  • wide-field

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Dermatology


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