We study the phase diagram of S=1 antiferromagnetic chains with particular emphasis on the Haldane phase. The hidden symmetry breaking measured by the string order parameter of den Nijs and Rommelse can be transformed into an explicit breaking of a Z2×Z2 symmetry by a nonlocal unitary transformation of the chain. For a particular class of Hamiltonians which includes the usual Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we prove that the usual Néel order parameter is always less than or equal to the string order parameter. We give a general treatment of rigorous perturbation theory for the ground state of quantum spin systems which are small perturbations of diagonal Hamiltonians. We then extend this rigorous perturbation theory to a class of "diagonally dominant" Hamiltonians. Using this theory we prove the existence of the Haldane phase in an open subset of the parameter space of a particular class of Hamiltonians by showing that the string order parameter does not vanish and the hidden Z2×Z2 symmetry is completely broken. While this open subset does not include the usual Heisenberg Hamiltonian, it does include models other than VBS models.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics