Cindy Matsen, Leigh Neumayer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


A hernia is a protrusion of tissue or an organ through an abnormal opening. Hernia defects can be congenital or acquired. They can occur in various anatomic locations with the most common being inguinal. In general, hernias occur more frequently in men, though femoral hernias are more commonly found in women. Risk factors for hernia development include trauma, surgery, connective tissue disorders, and increased abdominal pressure. Physical exam is the mainstay for hernia detection. Minimally symptomatic, reducible inguinal hernias can be safely observed. Symptomatic inguinal, incisional, femoral and umbilical hernias in patients over age 5 should all undergo elective surgical repair. Incarcerated hernias are non-reducible and if the hernia contains bowel can lead to bowel obstruction and bowel strangulation. Urgent surgical repair is required. Open and laparoscopic repair are both acceptable repair options though outcomes of laparoscopic repair are more operator dependent. Mesh repair is generally associated with better outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationTextbook of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)1405191821, 9781405191821
StatePublished - Apr 16 2012


  • Gastroschisis
  • Hernia
  • Incisional
  • Inguinal
  • Omphalocele

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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