Handheld threat object identification performance of 2-D visible imagery versus 3-D visible imagery

Keith Krapels, Ronald G. Driggers, Brian Teaney, Carl Halford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This research determines if there is an improvement in human observer performance, identifying potential weapons or threat objects, when imagery is presented in three dimensions instead of two dimensions. The potential improvement in performance is quantified by evaluating the change in the N50 cycle criteria, for this task and target set. The data suggests that as much as a 30% improvement in range capability may result from using 3-D imagery. The advent of affordable, practical, and real-time 3-D displays has led to a desire to evaluate and quantify the performance trade space for this application of the technology. Imagery was collected using a dual-camera stereo imaging system. A series of eight different resolutions were presented to observers in both 2-D and 3-D formats. The set of targets consisted of 12 handheld objects. The objects were a mix of potential threats or weapons and possible confusers. For example, a cellular telephone and a hand grenade are two such objects. This target set is the same target set used in previously reported research that determined the N50 requirements for handheld objects for both visible and infrared imagers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number063202
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Imaging
  • Modeling
  • Performance
  • Target acquisition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Engineering(all)


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