Hózhó: Promoting sleep health among Navajo caregivers

Maureen Russell, Carol M. Baldwin, Stuart F. Quan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Scopus citations


    Objectives: This study explored the feasibility and acceptability of a sleep health education intervention for caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (DD). Design: This mixed-methods pilot study utilized repeated measures and caregiver interviews. Setting: The intervention occurred in the homes of caregivers who live on the Navajo Nation. Participants: Fifteen caregivers of children with DD aged from birth to 3 years old participated. Intervention: The intervention consisted of three 1-hour home-based sessions. Educational modules were tailored to specific sleep issues of the caregiver and their child(ren), as well as the unique environmental and cultural features of Navajo families. Measurements: Quantitative measures included a sleep habits questionnaire, pre- and postmeasures of learning, and the SF-12 HRQoL. Quantitative data were analyzed with frequencies and repeated measures analyses with p .05. Qualitative comments regarding facilitators and detractors to healthy sleep were transcribed verbatim and categorized into themes. Results: Caregiver sleep duration increased by 2 hours (5.8±1.8 to 7.8±1.9, p = .005). Caregivers also reported improved physical (45.0±8.2 to 52.8+8.7 p = .001) and mental HR-QoL (41.8±8.9 to 49.3±10.9, p = .002), and enhanced knowledge of sleep disorders (13.4±4.0 to 20.7±5.6) and healthy sleep habits (15.7±4.1 to 25.4±3.4 each p = .005). Many participants reported better sleep quality in their children with earlier bedtimes and less night waking. Conclusions: Findings suggest that this tailored sleep education program is a culturally responsive approach to promoting caregiver sleep health and HR-QoL, as well as the sleep health of their children. Caregivers credited improved sleep to the support they received during visits and text messaging.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)220-231
    Number of pages12
    JournalSleep Health
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - Apr 2020


    • American Indian
    • Caregivers
    • Developmental disabilities
    • Health equity
    • Sleep intervention

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Health(social science)
    • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
    • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
    • Behavioral Neuroscience


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