Graph Theoretic Software Watermarks: Implementation, Analysis, and Attacks

Christian Collberg, Andrew Huntwork, Edward Carter, Gregg Townsend

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


This paper presents an implementation of the novel watermarking method proposed by Venkatcsan, Vazirani, and Sinha in their recent paper A Graph Theoretic Approach to Software Watermarking. An executable program is marked by the addition of code for which the topology of the control-flow graph encodes a watermark. We discuss issues that were identified during construction of an actual implementation that operates on Java bytecode. We measure the size and time overhead of watermarking, and evaluate the algorithm against a variety of attacks.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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