GOGREEN: A critical assessment of environmental trends in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations at z ≈ 1

Egidijus Kukstas, Michael L. Balogh, Ian G. Mccarthy, Yannick M. Bahe, Gabriella De Lucia, Pascale Jablonka, Benedetta Vulcani, Devontae C. Baxter, Andrea Biviano, Pierluigi Cerulo, Jeffrey C. Chan, M. C. Cooper, Ricardo Demarco, Alexis Finoguenov, Andreea S. Font, Chris Lidman, Justin Marchioni, Sean Mcgee, Adam Muzzin, Julie NantaisLyndsay Old, Irene Pintos-Castro, Bianca Poggianti, Andrew M.M. Reeves, Gregory Rudnick, Florian Sarron, Remco Van Der Burg, Kristi Webb, Gillian Wilson, Howard K.C. Yee, Dennis Zaritsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Recent observations have shown that the environmental quenching of galaxies at z ∼1 is qualitatively different to that in the local Universe. However, the physical origin of these differences has not yet been elucidated. In addition, while low-redshift comparisons between observed environmental trends and the predictions of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations are now routine, there have been relatively few comparisons at higher redshifts to date. Here we confront three state-of-the-art suites of simulations (BAHAMAS+MACSIS, EAGLE+Hydrangea, IllustrisTNG) with state-of-the-art observations of the field and cluster environments from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA and GOGREEN surveys, respectively, at z ∼1 to assess the realism of the simulations and gain insight into the evolution of environmental quenching. We show that while the simulations generally reproduce the stellar content and the stellar mass functions of quiescent and star-forming galaxies in the field, all the simulations struggle to capture the observed quenching of satellites in the cluster environment, in that they are overly efficient at quenching low-mass satellites. Furthermore, two of the suites do not sufficiently quench the highest mass galaxies in clusters, perhaps a result of insufficient feedback from AGN. The origin of the discrepancy at low stellar masses (M* ≲ 1010 M⊙), which is present in all the simulations in spite of large differences in resolution, feedback implementations, and hydrodynamical solvers, is unclear. The next generation of simulations, which will push to significantly higher resolution and also include explicit modelling of the cold interstellar medium, may help us to shed light on the low-mass tension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4782-4800
Number of pages19
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: groups: general
  • galaxies: interactions
  • hydrodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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