The overexpression of the colony-stimulating factor-1(CSF-1) by epithelial ovarian cancer cells enhances invasiveness and metastatic properties, contributing to the poor prognosis of the patients. It has been suggested that CSF-1 3′ untranslated region containing AU-rich elements (ARE) could regulate CSF-1 posttranscriptional expression and be responsible for its aberrant abundance in such cancer cells. In this study, normal (NOSE.1) and malignant (Hey) ovarian epithelial cells were used to examine CSF-1 expression and regulation. CSF-1 overexpression in Hey cells was found to associate with increased invasiveness, motility, urokinase activity, and virulence of tumorigenecity, compared with NOSE.1 cells, which expressed little CSF-1. CSF-1 ARE was further found to serve as an mRNA decay element that correlates with down-regulation of protein translation. Moreover, such down-regulation was found more prominent in NOSE.1 than in Hey cells, suggesting differences in posttranscriptional regulation. As a variety of trans-acting factors [AU-binding protein (AUBP)] are known to modulate messenger stability through binding to such elements, we examined the protein content of both cell lines for their ability to bind the CSF-1 ARE. Our results strongly suggested the abundance of such AUBP activity in Hey cells. We isolated a 37-kDa AUBP, which was identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). To summarize, our study identified GAPDH as an AUBP abundant in Hey cells, where it binds to CSF-1 ARE that imparts mRNA decay. These data suggest that GAPDH binding to CSF-1 ARE sequence prevents CSF-1 mRNA decay and subsequent down-regulation of CSF-1 protein translation, leading to CSF-1 overexpression and increased metastatic properties seen in ovarian cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research