Geriatric patient care by U.S. pharmacists in healthcare teams: Systematic review and meta-analyses

Jeannie K. Lee, Marion K. Slack, Jennifer Martin, Clara Ehrman, Marie Chisholm-Burns

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations


Objectives To conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses to examine the effects of pharmacists' care on geriatric patient-oriented health outcomes in the United States (U.S.). Design Studies examining U.S. pharmacists' patient care services from inception of the databases through July 2012 were searched. The databases searched include PubMed/MEDLINE, Ovid/MEDLINE, ABI/INFORM, Health Business Fulltext Elite, Academic Search Complete, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database, and Clinical Studies reporting pharmacists' intervention for geriatric patients, comparison groups, and patient-oriented outcomes were assessed. Dual review for inclusion and data extraction were performed. Setting University of Arizona College of Pharmacy. Measurements Study and participant characteristics, pharmacist intervention, and outcomes with data for meta-analyses were collected. A forest plot was constructed to obtain a pooled standardized mean difference using a random effects model. Results One hundred fifty-two articles were reviewed, with 20 resulting studies included in the final meta-analyses. Study sample size ranged from 36 to 4,218, with mean age of subjects being 65 and older. The studies were most frequently conducted in ambulatory care clinics, followed by inpatient settings; the majority focused on multiple diseases and conditions. Pharmacist activities varied widely, with technical interventions used most often. Favorable results were found in all outcome categories, and meta-analyses conducted for therapeutic, safety, hospitalization, and adherence were significant (P <.001), favoring pharmacist care over comparison. Some identifiable variability existed between included studies. Conclusion Pharmacist intervention has favorable effects on therapeutic, safety, hospitalization, and adherence outcomes in older adults. Pharmacists should be involved in team-based care of older adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1119-1127
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2013


  • direct patient care
  • meta-analysis
  • older adults
  • pharmacists
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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