Background: Lymphatic malformations (LMs) often pose treatment challenges due to a large size or a critical location that could lead to disfigurement, and there are no standardized treatment approaches for either refractory or unresectable cases. Methods: We examined the genomic landscape of a patient cohort of LMs (n = 30 cases) that underwent comprehensive genomic profiling using a large-panel next-generation sequencing assay. Immunohistochemical analyses were completed in parallel. Results: These LMs had low mutational burden with hotspot PIK3CA mutations (n = 20) and NRAS (n = 5) mutations being most frequent, and mutually exclusive. All LM cases with Kaposi sarcoma-like (kaposiform) histology had NRAS mutations. One index patient presented with subacute abdominal pain and was diagnosed with a large retroperitoneal LM harboring a somatic PIK3CA gain-of-function mutation (H1047R). The patient achieved a rapid and durable radiologic complete response, as defined in RECIST1.1, to the PI3Kα inhibitor alpelisib within the context of a personal-ized N-of-1 clinical trial (NCT03941782). In translational correlative studies, canonical PI3Kα pathway activation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and human LM-derived lymphatic endothelial cells carrying an allele with an activating mutation at the same locus were sensitive to alpelisib treatment in vitro, which was demonstrated by a concentration-dependent drop in measurable imped-ance, an assessment of cell status. Conclusions: Our findings establish that LM patients with conventional or kaposiform histology have distinct, yet targetable, driver mutations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)