Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause: Prevalence and Predictors

Nancy F. Woods, Joan F. Shaver, Judith A. Berg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) has been proposed as a diagnosis by a consensus of clinicians and investigators. Our purpose for this paper is to review extant evidence about: 1) the breadth of symptoms and symptom clusters as related to the syndrome; 2) the prevalence of GSM (includes vulvar and vaginal atrophy); 3) factors that are associated with, predict, or explain the syndrome; and 4) what should be pursued for expanding meaningful evidence. Within recent literature, we found a wide range of prevalence estimates, likely a function of the differing populations studied, study design, and methods of data collection. Factors related to the prevalence of GSM included age and aging; reproductive aging stage; hormones, especially estrogen; and culture and language. We recommend further specification of diagnostic criteria for GSM; clarification of urinary symptoms in GSM; use of longitudinal study designs; validation of GSM-related measures; exploration of cultural equivalence of GSM measures; and assessing biases in completed research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-42
Number of pages16
JournalClinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • genitourinary syndrome of menopause
  • predictors
  • prevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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