Genetically distinct genogroup IV norovirus strains identified in wastewater

Masaaki Kitajima, Andri T. Rachmadi, Brandon C. Iker, Eiji Haramoto, Charles P. Gerba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


We investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of genogroup IV norovirus (GIV NoV) strains in wastewater in Arizona, United States, over a 13-month period. Among 50 wastewater samples tested, GIV NoVs were identified in 13 (26 %) of the samples. A total of 47 different GIV NoV strains were identified, which were classified into two genetically distinct clusters: the GIV.1 human cluster and a unique genetic cluster closely related to strains previously identified in Japanese wastewater. The results provide additional evidence of the considerable genetic diversity among GIV NoV strains through the analysis of wastewater containing virus strains shed from all populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3521-3525
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of virology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Arizona
  • Genetic diversity
  • Norovirus
  • Seminested PCR
  • Wastewater treatment plant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology


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