Objective: Iatrogenic vascular injuries (IaVI's) appear to be increasing, with disparate prevalence across gender, race and ethnicity. We aim to assess the risk of IaVI's across these characteristics. Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008 to 2015, we identified rates of IaVI's among the top ten most frequently performed inpatient procedures in the United States. Joint point regression was employed to examine the trends in the rates of IaVI's. We also calculated the adjusted odds ratios for IaVI's using survey logistic regression. Results: During the eight-year study period, a total of 29,877,180 procedures were performed (33.6% hip replacement, 14% knee arthroplasty, 11.2% cholecystectomy, 10.3% spinal fusion, 8.9% lysis of adhesions, 8% colorectal resection, 7.9% partial bone excision, 5% appendectomy, 0.6% percutaneous coronary angioplasty, 0.6% laminectomy). A total of 194,031 (0.65%) IaVI's were associated with these procedures. The incidence of IaVI's increased over time with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 4.2% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.4; P < 0.01). More females (105,747; 54.5%) than males (88,284; 45.5%) suffered IaVI's during their hospital admission (P < 0.01). Patients 70 years of age and older had the highest incidence of IaVI's (12,244,082; 34.3%; P ≤ 0.01). Among the ten index procedures, Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites underwent the highest proportion of procedures (14.1 procedures/100 hospitalizations; P < 0.01) and cholecystectomy was associated with the highest rate of IaVI's (19.4 per 1000 hospitalizations, P ≤ 0.01). Overall, patients from the lowest income quartile were least likely to suffer IaVI's (0.83 95% CI 0.79-0.88, P < 0.01) compared to the highest income quartile. All form of healthcare coverage increased the odds of IaVI's: Medicaid (1.07 95% CI 1.07-1.13, P < 0.01); Private insurance (1.35 95% CI 1.3-1.39, P < 0.01); Self-pay or no charge (1.45 95% CI 1.38-1.52, P < 0.01). IaVI's increased the odds of in-hospital mortality in all groups (1.25 95% CI 1.14-1.35, P < 0.01) and more pronounced in NH-Blacks (1.51 95% CI 1.15-1.99, P < 0.01). In the overall cohort, urban teaching hospitals observed the highest odds of in-hospital mortality (1.11 95% CI 1.07-1.15, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Between 2008 to 2015, IaVI's rates for the top ten most frequently performed inpatient procedures increased by 33.6% (4.2% annually; P < 0.01). The elderly, females, and Hispanics more frequently had hospitalizations complicated by IaVI's. Overall, IaVI's independently increased the adjusted odds of mortality by 25%. IaVI's were most fatal among Blacks, about 50% elevated risk of death compared to NH-Whites. These benchmarks will be critical to future efforts to reduce IaVI, and associated healthcare disparities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine