Gaze dwell times on acute trauma injuries missed because of satisfaction of search

Kevin S. Berbaum, Eric A. Brandser, E. A. Franken, Donald D. Dorfman, Robert T. Caldwell, Elizabeth A. Krupinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Rationale and Objectives. The authors performed this study to determine whether satisfaction of search (SOS) errors in patients with multiple traumas are caused by faulty visual scanning, faulty recognition, or faulty decision making. Materials and Methods. A series of radiographs were obtained in patients with multiple traumas. Radiologists interpreted each series under two experimental conditions: when the first radiograph in the series included a fracture, and when it did not. In the first experiment, the initial radiographs showed nondisplaced fractures of the extremities (minor fractures); in the second experiment, the initial radiographs showed abnormalities of greater clinical importance (major fractures). Each series also included a radiograph with a subtle (test) fracture and a normal radiograph on which detection accuracy was measured. In each experiment, gaze dwell time was recorded as 10 radiologists reviewed images from 10 simulated cases of multiple trauma. Results. An SOS effect could be demonstrated only in the second experiment. Analysis of dwell times showed that search on subsequent radiographs was shortened when the initial radiograph contained a fracture; however, the errors were not based on faulty scanning. Conclusion. The SOS effect in musculoskeletal trauma is not caused by faulty scanning. Demonstration of an SOS effect on test fractures with major but not minor additional fractures suggests that detection of other fractures is inversely related to the severity of the detected fracture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)304-314
Number of pages11
JournalAcademic radiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Diagnostic radiology
  • Images
  • Interpretation
  • Observer performance
  • Quality assurance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Gaze dwell times on acute trauma injuries missed because of satisfaction of search'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this