Gauge Invariant Formulation of the Semiconductor Bloch Equations

A. M. Parks, J. V. Moloney, T. Brabec

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We derive gauge invariant semiconductor Bloch equations (GI-SBEs) that contain only gauge invariant band structure; shift vectors, and triple phase products. The validity and utility of the GI-SBEs is demonstrated in intense laser driven solids with broken inversion symmetry and nontrivial topology. The GI-SBEs present a useful platform for modeling and interpreting light-matter interactions in solids, in which the gauge freedom of the Bloch basis functions obscures physics and creates numerical obstacles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number236902
JournalPhysical review letters
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 8 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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