Gastrointestinal lymphatics in health and disease

J. S. Alexander, Vijay C. Ganta, P. A. Jordan, Marlys H. Witte

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations


Lymphatics perform essential transport and immune regulatory functions to maintain homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Although blood and lymphatic vessels function as parallel and integrated systems, our understanding of lymphatic structure, regulation and functioning lags far behind that of the blood vascular system. This chapter reviews lymphatic flow, differences in lymphangiogenic and hemangiogenic factors, lymphatic fate determinants and structural features, and examines how altered molecular signaling influences lymphatic function in organs of the GI system. Innate errors in lymphatic development frequently disturb GI functioning and physiology. Expansion of lymphatics, a prominent feature of GI inflammation, may also play an important role in tissue restitution following injury. Destruction or dysregulation of lymphatics, following injury, surgery or chronic inflammation also exacerbates GI disease activity. Understanding the physiological roles played by GI lymphatics is essential to elucidating their underlying contributions to forms of congenital and acquired forms of GI pathology, and will provide novel approaches for therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-335
Number of pages21
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 2010


  • FOXC2
  • Inflammation
  • Interstitial fluid
  • Intestinal
  • Lymphatics
  • Lymphedema
  • Prox1
  • SOX18
  • VEGFR-3
  • Vascular endothelial growth factors-C and D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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