Fully implanted battery-free high power platform for chronic spinal and muscular functional electrical stimulation

Alex Burton, Zhong Wang, Dan Song, Sam Tran, Jessica Hanna, Dhrubo Ahmad, Jakob Bakall, David Clausen, Jerry Anderson, Roberto Peralta, Kirtana Sandepudi, Alex Benedetto, Ethan Yang, Diya Basrai, Lee E. Miller, Matthew C. Tresch, Philipp Gutruf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Electrical stimulation of the neuromuscular system holds promise for both scientific and therapeutic biomedical applications. Supplying and maintaining the power necessary to drive stimulation chronically is a fundamental challenge in these applications, especially when high voltages or currents are required. Wireless systems, in which energy is supplied through near field power transfer, could eliminate complications caused by battery packs or external connections, but currently do not provide the harvested power and voltages required for applications such as muscle stimulation. Here, we introduce a passive resonator optimized power transfer design that overcomes these limitations, enabling voltage compliances of ± 20 V and power over 300 mW at device volumes of 0.2 cm2, thereby improving power transfer 500% over previous systems. We show that this improved performance enables multichannel, biphasic, current-controlled operation at clinically relevant voltage and current ranges with digital control and telemetry in freely behaving animals. Preliminary chronic results indicate that implanted devices remain operational over 6 weeks in both intact and spinal cord injured rats and are capable of producing fine control of spinal and muscle stimulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7887
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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