Full vectorial eigenmode analysis of VCSELs: Threshold gain values and modal frequencies

D. Burak, R. Binder

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


A complete theoretical approach to the electromagnetic properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is presented. The Maxwell's equations are solved by using the local mode expansion technique. The transverse components of the electromagnetic field in each layer of the cavity are expressed in terms of complete set of orthogonal local modes. Matching these components at each boundary yields the vectorial transform matrix of the structure. The cavity eigenmodes are found from the condition of vanishing in-coming amplitudes. Results for the characterization of laser modes include modal frequencies, threshold gains and eigenmode light-field vector patterns. The influence of scattering losses on threshold gain values as a function of VCSEL radius, mode order and number of dielectric layers are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)220-229
Number of pages10
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1998
EventVertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers II - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Jan 28 1998Jan 29 1998


  • Eigenmodes
  • Laser-light polarization
  • Maxwell equations
  • Semiconductor lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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