Objective: The increased risk for persons living with HIV to develop diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) even in the post-antiretroviral therapy eras suggests a role beyond immunosuppression in lymphoma development. However, the mechanisms leading to lymphoma in the HIV setting are not fully understood. HIV is known to induce activationinduced cytidine deaminase (AID) levels in nonneoplastic B cells in vitro and chronic AID expression may play an important role in lymphomagenesis. Although AID expression is observed in B-cell lymphoma, studies in HIV-associated DLBCL are limited. Design: In this study, we conducted a retrospective review of DLBCL tissues from patients with and without HIV infection to compare expression of AID and B-cell receptors potentially involved in HIV and B-cell interaction. Methods: We evaluated DLBCL formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 72 HIV-seropositive and 58 HIV-seronegative patients for AID, DC-SIGN, and CD40 protein expression. BCL2 and MYC, two well established prognostically significant oncoproteins in DLBCL, were also assessed at the protein and mRNA levels. Subset analysis was performed according to DLBCL subtype and EBV status. Results: Of note, AID expression was more frequent in HIV-associated DLBCL compared with non-HIV-associated DLBCL regardless of cell-of-origin subtype, and also displayed significantly less BCL2 expression. Despite no direct correlation with AID expression, the HIV-DLBCL tissues also exhibited high levels of the DC-SIGN receptor. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings support a potential role for AID in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lymphomas and suggest the need of further investigations into the involvement of the DC-SIGN receptor-signaling pathway.
- Activation-induced cytidine deaminase
- Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
- Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Infectious Diseases