Frames in outdoor environmental education programs: What we communicate and why we think it matters

Jan Činčera, Bruce Johnson, Roman Kroufek, Miloslav Kolenatý, Petra Šimonová

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This paper discusses the application of frame analysis as a method of designing and evaluating outdoor environmental education programs. In particular, it investigates what frames are communicated in these programs, why and how program leaders focus on communicating particular frames, and how students interact with these frames. Five outdoor environmental education programs for elementary school students were analyzed. We used a qualitative approach that combined field observation, interviews with program leaders (N = 15), qualitative findings based on questionnaires collected from the participants after completing the programs (N = 365), and interviews with some of the students (N = 10). According to the results, while the leaders intensively applied various surface frames to attract student interest and organize the program activities, the deep frames aimed for in the main program messages connected with the program goals often remained implicit and were not recognized by the students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4451
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020


  • Frames
  • Outdoor environmental education
  • Program evaluation
  • Qualitative

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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