Fluorescence-based SMC and OCT endoscope to study aberrant crypt foci in the mouse colon

Molly Keenan, Sarah Leung, Faith Rice, R. Andrew Wall, Jennifer K. Barton

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


The accepted model of colorectal cancer assumes the paradigm that aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest events in tumorigenesis and develop into adenoma, which further develop into adenocarcinoma. Under this assumption, basic research and drug studies have been performed using ACF as substitute markers for fully developed carcinoma. While studies have shown a correlation between the number of ACF present and the presence of adenoma/adenocarcinoma, a causal relationship has yet to be determined. The mouse has shown to be an excellent model for colorectal cancer; however, the outcomes of such experiments require sacrifice and histologic examination of ex vivo tissue. To better utilize the mouse model to study ACF and adenoma development, an endoscope was constructed for non-destructive in vivo surface visualization, molecular imaging and cross-sectional imaging of the colon. Our system combines surface magnifying chromoendoscopy (SMC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image colon microstructure. Sixteen mice, treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane, were imaged at 2 week intervals, to visualize carcinogenesis events. With this dual-modality system we are able to visualize crypt structure alteration over time as well as adenoma development over time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEndoscopic Microscopy VIII
StatePublished - 2013
EventEndoscopic Microscopy VIII - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 3 2013Feb 4 2013

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherEndoscopic Microscopy VIII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • aberrant crypt foci (ACF)
  • colon
  • endoscope
  • gastrointestinal (GI)
  • methylene blue
  • mouse
  • optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • protocol
  • side-viewing
  • surface magnifying chromoendoscopy (SMC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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