Flow Rate and Raspberry Pi-Based Paper Microfluidic Blood Coagulation Assay Device

Robin E. Sweeney, Vina Nguyen, Benjamin Alouidor, Elizabeth Budiman, Raymond K. Wong, Jeong Yeol Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Monitoring blood coagulation in response to an anticoagulant (heparin) and its reversal agent (protamine) is essential during and after surgery, especially with cardiopulmonary bypass. A current clinical standard is the use of activated clotting time, where the mechanical movement of a plunger through a whole blood-filled channel is monitored to evaluate the endpoint time of coagulation. As a rapid, simple, low-volume, and cost-effective alternative, we have developed a paper microfluidic assay and Raspberry Pi-based device with the aim of quantifying the extent of blood coagulation in response to varying doses of heparin and protamine. The flow rate of blood through the paper microfluidic channel is automatically monitored using the Python-coded edge detection algorithm. For each set of the assay, 8-$\mu\text{L}$ of fresh human whole blood (untreated and undiluted) from human subjects is loaded onto each of eight sample pads, which have been preloaded with varying amounts of heparin or protamine. The total assay time is 3-5 min including the time for sample loading and incubation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8653900
Pages (from-to)4743-4751
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019


  • Blood coagulation
  • Raspberry Pi
  • heparin
  • paper microfluidics
  • protamine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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