Background and Purpose: In following patients initially recruited for a cross-sectional study of blood viscosity in ischemic cerebrovascular disease, it was noted that those having a low albumin-globulin ratio appeared to experience the majority of subsequent vascular events. Accordingly, a prospective study in which subjects were assigned to a high or low albumin-globulin cohort was undertaken to examine the relation between a low albumin-globulin ratio, the presence of clinical risk factors for stroke, and the occurrence of subsequent stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death. Methods: Three groups of subjects were followed for an average of 1.5±0.8 years to ascertain vascular end points. Group 1 consisted of 126 patients with acute ischemic stroke; group 2 included 109 subjects matched with group 1 for age, medications, and recognized clinical risk factors for stroke; and group 3 was composed of 84 healthy volunteers, matched for age with groups 1 and 2. The median albumin-globulin ratio for group 1 at enrollment, 1.45, was used to dichotomize patients into two cohorts: All subjects with an albumin-globulin ratio of 1.45 or less were assigned to the “low” albumin-globulin cohort; those whose ratio was greater than 1.45 were assigned to the “high” albumin-globulin cohort. The occurrence of vascular end points was verified during subsequent hospitalizations and outpatient clinic visits and by telephone interviews of patients and providers. Results: A total of 51 vascular events occurred, including 39 in group 1, 8 in group 2, and 4 in group 3. Subjects in either group 1 or 2 who were in the low albumin-globulin cohort had at least double the risk for a subsequent vascular event compared with their counterparts in the high albumin-globulin cohort (P<.01 and P<.03, respectively). In comparison with the high albumin-globulin cohort, significantly more patients in the low albumin-globulin cohort in group 1 had a history of prior stroke (P<.03). When groups 1 and 2 were combined, both a low albumin-globulin ratio and diabetes had a significant independent association with increased risk for subsequent vascular events in a Cox proportional-hazards model (P<.01 and P<.03, respectively). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that significantly increased risk for subsequent vascular events in stroke patients and in subjects with clinical risk factors for stroke is associated with a shift in the concentrations of blood proteins to a prothrombotic environment characterized by lower levels of albumin and an increased concentration of globulins and fibrinogen.
- Stroke outcome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing