Fast spectroscopic imaging strategies for potential applications in fMRI

Robert V. Mulkern, Nan Kuei Chen, Koichi Oshio, Lawrence P. Panych, Frank J. Rybicki, Giulio Gambarota

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Technical aspects of two general fast spectroscopic imaging (SI) strategies, one based on gradient echo trains and the other on spin echo trains, are reviewed within the context of potential applications in the field of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fast spectroscopic imaging of water may prove useful for identifying mechanisms underlying the blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) of the water signal during brain activation studies. Reasonably rapid mapping of changes in proton signals from brain metabolites, like lactate, creatine or even neurotransmitter associated metabolites like GABA, is substantially more challenging but technically feasible particularly as higher field strengths become available. Fast spectroscopic methods directed towards the 31P signals from phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine tri-phosphates (ATP) are also technically feasible and may prove useful for studying cerebral energetics within fMRI contexts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1395-1405
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number10 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • ATP
  • Brain metabolites
  • Fast spectroscopic imaging
  • Functional MR
  • Lactate
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Phosphorus
  • T2*
  • fMRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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