Background: Despite the increasing use of high flow nasal cannula oxygenation systems (HFNC) in clinical practice, little is known about its role in all cause respiratory failure as compared to traditional non-invasive ventilation (BiPAP). Furthermore, the effect of HFNC on mortality is unknown. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 49,853 patients with respiratory failure treated with non-invasive respiratory support (HFNC or BiPAP) and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) between 2017 and 2018. Results: Patients initially treated with HFNC who underwent subsequent intubation and IMV had a higher mortality rate as compared to patients who were initially treated with BiPAP and underwent subsequent intubation and IMV (34.8% vs 26.3%, p < 0.0001, OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.26,1.76). Patients first treated with HFNC who underwent subsequent intubation and IMV had a significantly increased mortality compared to patients who underwent immediate intubation and IMV (34.8% vs. 21.5%, p ≤ 0.0001, OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.67, 2.27). Stratified based on ICD-10 diagnosis, patients with a diagnosis of COPD exacerbation or heart failure treated with HFNC and subsequent intubation and IMV had higher mortality as compared to those treated with immediate IMV alone. This trend did not hold true for patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Conclusion: In a real-world retrospective analysis, use of HFNC was associated with increased mortality as compared to BiPAP and IMV alone. Further study is needed to confirm these associations.
- non-invasive ventilation
- oxygen inhalation therapy
- respiratory insufficiency
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine