Factors predictive of sexual violence: Testing the four pillars of the Confluence Model in a large diverse sample of college men

Neil M. Malamuth, Raina V. Lamade, Mary P. Koss, Elise Lopez, Christopher Seaman, Robert Prentky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


This article focuses on the characteristics of sexually violent men who have not been convicted of a crime. The objective of this study was to test the four key interrelated pillars of the Confluence Model. The first key pillar posits the interaction of Hostile Masculinity and Impersonal Sex as core risk predictors. The second pillar entails a “mediated structure” wherein the impact of more general risk factors is mediated via those specific to aggression against women. The third pillar comprises a single latent factor underlying various types of sexual violence. The fourth pillar expands the core model by including the secondary risk factors of lower empathy, peer support, extreme pornography use, and participation in alcohol parties. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,148 male students from 13 U.S. colleges and universities completed a comprehensive survey that assessed the hypothesized risk factors and self-reported sexual violence, which included noncontact sexual offenses, contact sexual coercion, and contact sexual aggression. A series of multiple regression analyses were conducted before testing structural equation models. The results supported the integration of the four pillars within a single expanded empirical model that accounted for 49% of the variance of sexual violence. This study yielded data supporting all four key pillars. These findings provide information about non-redudant risk factors that can be used to develop screening tools, group-based and individually tailored psychoeducational and treatment interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-420
Number of pages16
JournalAggressive behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • Confluence Model
  • campus sexual assault
  • interventions for sexual aggression
  • sexual violence risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Factors predictive of sexual violence: Testing the four pillars of the Confluence Model in a large diverse sample of college men'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this