eXtreme gradient boosting-based classification of bacterial mixtures in water and milk using wireless microscopic imaging of quorum sensing peptide-conjugated particles

Yan Liang, Min Hee Lee, Avory Zhou, Bradley Khanthaphixay, Dong Soo Hwang, Jeong Yeol Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Numerous bacteria can cause water- and foodborne diseases and are often found in bacterial mixtures, making their detection challenging. Specific bioreceptors or selective growth media are necessary for most bacterial detection methods. In this work, we collectively used five quorum sensing-based peptides identified from bacterial biofilms to identify 10 different bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and their mixtures in water and milk. Four different machine learning classification methods were used: k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), decision tree (DT), support vector machine (SVM), and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost). Peptides were crosslinked to submicron particles, and peptide-bacteria interactions on paper microfluidic chips caused the particle aggregation. A wireless, pocket fluorescence microscope (interfaced with a smartphone) counted such particle aggregations. XGBoost showed the best accuracy of 83.75% in identifying bacterial species from water samples using 320 different datasets and 91.67% from milk samples using 140 different datasets (5 peptide features per dataset). Each peptide's contribution to correct classification was evaluated. The results were concentration-dependent, allowing the identification of a dominant species from bacterial mixtures. Using XGBoost and the previous milk database, we tested 14 blind samples of various bacterial mixtures in milk samples, with an accuracy of 81.55% to predict the dominant species. The entire process could be completed within a half hour. The demonstrated system can provide a handheld, low-cost, easy-to-operate tool for potential hygiene spot-checks, public health, or personal healthcare.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115144
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Volume227
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bacterial biofilm
  • Foodborne disease
  • Machine learning
  • Wireless fluorescence microscope
  • eXtreme gradient boosting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry

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