Although tubular necrosis in acute renal failure is associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the mechanism of ROS-induced cell necrosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the role of the extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in H2O 2-induced necrosis of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) in primary culture. Exposure of 60 to 70% confluent RPTC to 1 mM H2O2 for 3 h resulted in 44% necrotic cell death, as measured by trypan blue uptake, and inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), the upstream activator of ERK, by either 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio] butadiene (U0126) or 2-(2′-amino-3′-methoxyphenyl)-oxanaphthalen-4- one (PD98059) or overexpression of dominant-negative mutant of MEK1, inhibited cell death. In contrast, overexpression of active MEK1 enhanced H 2O2-induced cell death. H2O2 treatment led to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in RPTC, which was decreased by U0126 and PD98059. Furthermore, inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway decreased oxidant-mediated ERK1/2 activation and mitochondrial swelling in isolated renal cortex mitochondria. However, treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA), a mitochondrial permeability transition blocker, did not suppress RPTC necrotic cell death, loss of MMP, and mitochondrial swelling. We suggest that ERK is a critical mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction and necrotic cell death of renal epithelial cells following oxidant injury. Oxidant-induced necrotic cell death was mediated by a CsA-insensitive loss of MMP that is regulated by the ERK pathway.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - Jun 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine