External beam radiotherapy and hyperthermia in the treatment of patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma: Results of long term follow-up

Özer Algan, Helen Fosmire, K. Hynynen, Bruce Dalkin, Haitan Cui, George Drach, Baldassarre Stea, James R. Cassady

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND. The current study was conducted to evaluate the combination of external beam radiation therapy and hyperthermia in the treatment of patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. METHODS. Twenty-six patients were treated on a Phase I/II protocol between June 1990 and April 1993. The median age of the patients was 69 years. Nine patients had well differentiated adenocarcinoma, ten patients had moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, and six patients had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. All patients had American Urologic Society Stage C2-D1 adenocarcinoma. The median pretreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) level was 29 ng/mL (range, 6-104 ng/mL). All patients received external beam radiation therapy using a four-field technique. The median radiation dose was 6800 centigrays (cGy) given in 200-cGy fractions. Hyperthermia was administered concurrently with radiation therapy to temperatures of 42.5 °C for 30 minutes using a transrectal ultrasound applicator with 3 thermometry probes, given as either a single treatment (9 patients) or as two treatments (17 patients). Overall survival (OS) and biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) status were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. A consensus conference definition of PSA failure was used. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. The median follow-up for all patients was 71 months. RESULTS. The median time to PSA nadir was 15 months with a median PSA nadir value of 1.0 ng/mL. The median and 5-year OS was 88 months and 73%, respectively, and the median and 5-year bNED survival was 36 months and 35%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed only the pretreatment PSA level (P = 0.03) and the PSA nadir reached (P < 0.01) to be significant predictors of bNED survival. The duration of hyperthermia therapy showed a trend toward significance for OS (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS. The current Phase I/II protocol evaluating the combination of prostate hyperthermia and external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma suggests prostate hyperthermia to be feasible with no apparent significant increased toxicity, although there was no significant improvement in treatment outcome when compared with other studies reported in the literature evaluating external beam radiation therapy with or without androgen suppression. However, further investigation into the duration as well as the temperature of the hyperthermia with a greater number of patients is warranted. (C) 2000 American Cancer Society.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)399-403
Number of pages5
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 15 2000


  • Biochemical no evidence of disease outcome
  • Locally advanced prostate carcinoma
  • Prostate hyperthermia
  • Radiotherapy
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'External beam radiotherapy and hyperthermia in the treatment of patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma: Results of long term follow-up'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this