Exposure and risk assessment of Salmonella in recycled residuals

Charles P. Gerba, Nohelia Castro-del Campo, John P. Brooks, Ian L. Pepper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The potential health effects of Salmonella found in wastewater residuals is dependent on the exposure of individuals to the organism. This paper provides a risk assessment for human infection from Salmonella due to direct contact with Class B biosolids, and from contact with Class A biosolids following regrowth of Salmonella. In addition, a risk assessment is provided for infection via airborne transport of bioaerosols from Class B biosolids and biosolids in which regrowth had occurred, to off-site communities. Results of the risk characterization imply that the risk of human infection from direct contact with Class B land applied residuals and subsequent ingestion is low. In contrast, the risk from direct contact with Class A residuals following regrowth is greater. Risks from airborne transport of Salmonella via bioaerosols away from a Class B land application site are also low. However, once again the risk from aerosols resulting from biosolids in which regrowth had occurred was greater. Based on these analyses, we conclude that it is highly unlikely that Salmonella infections will occur from land applied Class A or B residuals. However, risks become significant if Class A biosolids are stored anaerobically i.e. saturated, prior to land application.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1061-1065
Number of pages5
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2008


  • Class B biosolids
  • Land application
  • Regrowth
  • Residuals
  • Risk assessment
  • Salmonella
  • Storage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology


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